Il ruolo dell'infermiere nel percorso donazione-trapianto.
I dati della Regione Lombardia in materia di trapianti sono stati positivi per il 2007. I donatori utilizzati nel corso dello scorso anno sono stati 195, 2 in pi� rispetto all'anno precedente. La Lombardia resta comunque in posizione media nella classifica italiana, con circa 21 donazioni ogni milione di abitanti.
Ci sono regioni, come la Toscana, il Piemonte, le Marche e la Liguria, che a livello di donazioni tengono il passo della nazione europea pi� avanzata in questo settore, vale a dire la Spagna, con pi� di 30 donatori ogni milione di abitanti, e regioni, come la nostra, che si pongono in posizione intermedia. L'attivit� di trapianto, invece, spicca in modo particolare sul territorio nazionale (644 organi trapiantati nel 2007).
Il ruolo dell'infermiere nel processo donazione-trapianto � rilevante, perch� spesso � la figura che riesce a stringere un rapporto privilegiato con il paziente e con i suoi familiari. L'organizzazione dei trapianti � come un mosaico composto da tanti tasselli, uno di questi � l'infermiere. Se manca un solo tassello il mosaico perde valore. Il successo quindi � possibile quando si realizza una vera cooperazione fra tutte le figure sanitarie, che partecipano alla buona riuscita di questo evento.
Il codice deontologico dell'infermiere contiene i seguenti articoli:
4.16. L'infermiere sostiene i familiari dell'assistito, in particolare nel momento della perdita e nella elaborazione del lutto.
4.18. L'infermiere considera la donazione di sangue, tessuti ed organi un'espressione di solidariet�. Si adopera per favorire informazione e sostegno alle persone coinvolte nel donare e nel ricevere.
L'impegno alla cultura della donazione di organi rientra appieno nelle frasi del citato codice, unico al mondo a riportare in maniera chiara ed inequivocabile la posizione degli infermieri italiani.
Quando un'apposita commissione medica (CAM) constata la condizione di morte cerebrale del paziente in Terapia Intensiva vi sono i presupposti oggettivi per la donazione di organi. Qualora si ritenga che un soggetto sia idoneo alla donazione, � necessario che le funzioni dei suoi organi siano mantenute in maniera ottimale affinch� ne sia garantito il buono stato. In tutte queste fasi assume grande importanza il ruolo dell'infermiere, il quale innanzitutto collabora con i medici nell'accertamento della morte cerebrale.
Durante il periodo d'osservazione l'infermiere deve, nei confronti del potenziale donatore, mirare all'ottimale conservazione della funzionalit� degli organi, mantenendone la perfusione, l'ossigenazione, la temperatura, l'equilibrio idro-elettrolitico e acido-base entro i limiti previsti dal protocollo di idoneit� al prelievo. Fra i requisiti richiesti per una donazione di organo c'e' anche l'assenza di infezioni o affezioni trasmissibili. Tale rischio � elevato in particolar modo nei donatori, in quanto si utilizza un sistema di monitoraggio e di terapia notevolmente aggressivo ed invasivo. Quindi un altro obiettivo del piano assistenziale infermieristico � quello di mettere in atto tutte le misure necessarie per prevenire l'insorgenza di infezioni.
Altri compiti dell'infermiere sono quelli di collaborare nello svolgimento delle procedure diagnostiche a cui la persona � sottoposta durante il periodo d'osservazione e mantenere i contatti col Centro Interregionale di Riferimento (NITp) telefonicamente e via fax.
© 2005 Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi
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Societ� del gruppo
21 Aprile 2008
Questioni etico-deontologiche, medico-giuridiche e sociali
Dal 4 al 11 Maggio 2008
Ministero della Salute
Regioni e Provincie Autonome
Un po' di storia
Attivit� di donazione e trapianto Anno 2007
Il 12 settembre 1973 Christian Barnard, cardiochirurgo del �Groothe Schuur� di Citt� del Capo partecipava ad un congresso della Societ� dei Trapianti tenutosi a Villa Ponti a Varese...
Negli ultimi 10 anni l�Italia � il Paese europeo dove si � realizzato il pi� grande incremento in termini di donatori utilizzati ed oggi...
La parola all'esperto
Il rischio infettivo nel donatore d'organi
La carenza di donatori d�organo rappresenta un serio problema in tutto il mondo. Nonostante il notevole incremento del numero di donatori registrato nel nostro paese negli ultimi anni...
Il ruolo dell'infermiere
I dati della Regione Lombardia in materia di trapianti sono stati positivi per il 2007. I donatori utilizzati nel corso dello scorso anno sono stati 195, 2 in pi� rispetto all'anno precedente...
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